*Apakah Hukum Menyertai Sukan MMA Seperti Khabib Nurmagomedov?*
Semenjak kemenangan Khabib ke atas Conor McGregor, di mana beliau telah menjadi kebanggaan umat Islam kerana telah menumbangkan si mulut lancang yang memprovokasi agama Islam, menghina keluarga Khabib.
Akan tetapi timbul persoalan, apakah hukum seorang Muslim menyertai sukan seumpama MMA. MMA merupakan singkatan kepada Mixed Martial Art. Ia merupakan satu sukan yang menggabungkan hampir kesemua kombinasi dan teknik berlawan daripada pelbagai jenis seni beladiri.
Seperti saya sebutkan sebelum ini, saya bukanlah seorang ulama. Jadi di sini, saya hanya membantu tuan-tuan mencari fatwa-fatwa ulama yang ada dalam isu ini. Saya meminta maaf kerana fatwa ini di dalam B.Inggeris dan saya tidak sempat menterjemahkannya ke dalam B.Malaysia.
Saya menemui beberapa fatwa berkaitan tinju.
From what we see nowadays, most sports have gone beyond that and are no longer permissible; they have become haraam, especially boxing which is the worst of sports, for the following reasons:
1 – It involves attacking the face, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If any one of you has a fight with his brother, let him avoid the face.”
(al-Bukhaari, 2560; Muslim, 2612). This game is based on hitting the face of one’s opponent with the strongest blow the boxer can muster.
2 – It is a waste of time. Allaah has bestowed many blessings upon the Muslim, and He will question him about them on the Day of Resurrection. But people think little of these blessings and waste many of them such as good health and free time. One of the things that Allaah will question the Muslim about on the Day when he meet Him will be his youth and what he did with it, and his life and how he spent it. What will this man say who spent his youth and his life training to fight people and wrestle with them and box with them in order to gain a title or win a prize?
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said:
If a person should not waste his money on things that are of no benefit, it is even more important that he not waste his time, because time is more precious than money, and because the fact that the young and the not-so-young waste their time on these sorts of games that are of no benefit to them is something that is very unfortunate and regrettable.
Fataawa Islamiyyah, 4/435
3 – It is a harmful sport which can lead to irreparable damage, and Allaah has forbidden us to harm our bodies, which He has commanded us to preserve and protect.
It was narrated from ‘Ubaadah ibn al-Saamit that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) decreed that there should be no harm or reciprocating of harm. Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 2340; Ahmad, 21714; this hadeeth was classed as saheeh by Imam Ahmad and al-Haakim, and as hasan by Ibn al-Salaah.
See Khalaasat al-Badr al-Muneer, by Ibn al-Mulaqqin, 2/438
Because of your practising this sport, you know that there are many boxers have been permanently injured, especially with damage to the brain and nerves.
4 – It involves wasting money and wasting people’s time with something that is of no benefit. Instead of being wasted on this useless entertainment, that money could have been spent on charitable causes. How many millions are wasted that could have been spent on feeding the hungry, building a mosque, opening a school or other good works?
5 – These sports – including boxing – have become an excuse for tribalism and nationalism. Sport, as it exists nowadays, has divided people and made people love or hate one another on the basis of the victory or defeat of a team.
6 – It involves uncovering the ‘awrah, even if you do not do that, your opponent will. The man’s ‘awrah is from the navel to the knee, as was narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
Similarly, it involves uncovering of the spectators’ ‘awrahs, both men and women. This is something that you cannot ward off or even denounce them for it.
You say in your question that you will not fight Muslims, but will the people who organize the matches allow you that? I don’t think so, and you know better than we do.
These fights are not held for the sake of religion, and they are not based on that. When people watch a fight, they do not think that this is a fight between Islam and kufr.
Moreover, when you fight, you will be fighting in the name of the country where you live, or which has given you its nationality; they will not allow you to fight in the name of Islam.
And even if your opponent is a kaafir, he may from among the people with whom there is peace (ahl al-silm), not those who are in a state of war with the Muslims (ahl al-harb), so what right do you have to raise your hand against a man who is at peace with us?
In conclusion, this sport if one of the haraam games that cause more harm than good.
Praise be to Allaah.
The Islamic sharee’ah permits all things that are beneficial to the body and do not harm it, and it forbids all things that may cause damage or harm to the body. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Your body has rights over you.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-Sawm, 1839)
If sports are free from things which are forbidden in sharee’ah, then practising those sports is beneficial. Boxing is an ancient sport that was practised by the Greeks.
Boxing is the worst kind of sport, and probably it does not even deserve to be called a sport, despite the fact that western nations, in particular – where boxing is widespread at a professional level – call it “the noble sport” and a form of self-defence. They forget, or overlook, the fact that the main aim of boxing is to harm one’s opponent and throw him to the ground, preferably with the “decisive blow” (or “knock-out”), as they call it, which is the highest level of victory in boxing.
“Many voices have been raised in the parliaments of many countries demanding a ban on professional boxing, in view of the harm that has been caused to many boxers. Sweden has succeeded in imposing such a ban, whilst many other nations have failed to do so, despite the many injuries, and even deaths, caused to many professional boxers as a direct result of this violent sport.
The fact of the matter is that the deaths of so many boxers is the reason for many voices calling for an end to this sport, or at least the imposition of strict rules to limit its violence.” (From Huna London magazine, issue # 413, March 1983).
Dr. Roger Whirty, the spokesman of the British Medical Council in Wales, spoke of the aims of the Council’s campaign against boxing: “We want to show everyone that boxing is an extremely dangerous sport, not only because of the increasing number of fatalities, but also because of the disabilities which affect many more times that number. In order to achieve that, we are trying to put pressure on various official bodies to condemn this sport, and not to consider it to be a sport at all. I reiterate once again that the danger of this sport lies in the harm caused to hundreds of boxers as a result of the disabilities that they suffer.
The number of boxers who have died as a result of injuries sustained in boxing between 1945 and 1983 is three hundred and fifty.” (From Huna London magazine, issue # 413, March 1983).
The Islamic attitude towards this sport:
The principles of Islam are completely opposed to the idea of the ummah accepting this dangerous deviation as a moral or intellectual trend which would permit such violent fights between members of the ummah or of the human race as a whole.
Among these principles we may list the following:
1. Harm. We have already mentioned the harm and danger to human life involved in this sport, and the testimony of western specialists who are motivated by their humanitarian feelings to fight and strive to eliminate boxing from the international sporting lexicon.
2. Violating the sanctity of the face. Boxing is based on allowing punches to the face of one’s opponent using the maximum force that one possesses. Blows to the face earn more points than blows to any other part of the body. This clearly goes against the teaching of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as narrated by Abu Hurayrah: “When any one of you fights, let him avoid (striking) the face.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, 5/215).
Al-Haafiz said: “This prohibition also includes all those who are struck for the purpose of hadd or ta’zeer punishments or discipline. According to the hadeeth narrated by Abu Bakrah and others, which was recorded by Abu Dawood and others, about the woman who had committed adultery, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded that she should be stoned to death, and said, ‘Stone her, but avoid the face.’ (Narrated by Abu Dawood, 4/152). If that is the command in the case of one who is being punished and is going to die anyway, then the rule is even more applicable in cases of lesser severity.” See al-Fath, 5/216
Al-Nawawi said: “The scholars said: it is forbidden to strike the face because it is soft and all of a person’s beauty and most of his senses are located there. If the face is hit, there is the fear that all or some of them may be destroyed or disfigured. Any defect in the face is a terrible thing because it is so prominent and obvious, and usually the person who is hit in the face will not be spared some disfigurement.” (al-Fath, 5/216).
In al-Fath, he says concerning the specific prohibition narrated in the hadeeth:
“Al-Nawawi did not discuss the details of this prohibition. It is clear that it is haraam, and this is supported by the hadeeth of Suwayd ibn Maqran al-Sahaabi, that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw a man slap a slave (or a boy) in the face, and he said, “Do you not know that the face is inviolate?” (Muslim, 3/1280.
As regards your question, we’d like to cite for you the fatwa issued by theEuropean Council for Fatwa and Research. It goes as follows:
“According to a juristic rule in Islam stating “Taking a lawful act as profession is permissible, save what’s made exceptional by a clear proof”, sport is basically permissible in Islam, if not obligatory. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, urged his followers to practice some sort of sport and exercise that help keep the body fit, as long as that it doesn’t entail harm.
As for boxing, it is permissible if it’s taken as a mere hobby to train oneself on how to practice this sport, without taking a human being as a target (i.e., one should direct the fists to a punch bag and not to a person). But, one should not think of adopting it as profession. This is not permissible, due to the great harm and untold risk it involves, especially to the body and life of the victim. Islam never allows inflicting harm on any person; Muslim or non-Muslim. This is based on the juristic rule: “There should be neither harm nor reciprocating injury”.
Besides, boxing entails directing blows to the head and face. This is forbidden in Islam, according to the Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “If anyone of you fights (or, in another version, beats) a person, he should not hit him in the face.” (Agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
If you have any further comments, please don’t hesitate to write back!
May Allah guide you to the straight path, and guide you to that which pleases Him, Amen.
The Third Decree on the issue of boxing, freestyle wrestling, and bullfighting
Praise be to Allah, Alone. May peace and blessings be upon the Last Prophet, our master and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), his family, and Companions.
The Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World League in its tenth session held at Makkah Al-Mukarramah during the period (from Sat. Safar 24, 1408 A.H./October 17, 1987 A.D. to Wed. Safar 28, 1408 A.H/Oct. 21, 1987 A.D.) investigated the legal decision concerning the boxing and freestyle wrestling as practiced in some foreign countries, and bullfighting as a permissible sporting game, the academy reviewed and discussed all aspects of this issue and considered the results of such practices that have been classed as sports and broadcast on TV programs in Islamic and non-Islamic countries. After looking into the studies submitted to the academy in its previous session by competent doctors and the information provided by some statistics presented regarding what has happened in the world as a result of practicing boxing and the tragic incidents seen on TV resulting from it, the council of the academy decided the following:
The Academy Council has unanimously agreed that boxing as practiced nowadays in contests and sport centers in our countries is a prohibited practice in the Islamic Shari`ah. It is based on permitting fighters to injure each other to the extent that could lead to blindness, permanent severe brain damage, serious fractures, or death; without imposing any liability on the other party. In addition, spectators derive pleasure from the winner’s victory and feelings of happiness for the injury suffered by the loser. This is absolutely prohibited and rejected in Islam for Allah (Exalted be He) states, …and do not throw yourselves into destruction And He (Exalted be He) says: And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allâh is Most Merciful to you. In addition to the statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him): There is no harm (in Islam) nor should one cause harm (either to himself or to others). Thus, the jurists of Shari`ah state that if a person makes his blood violable to another, saying: (kill me), it is impermissible for the other to do this and if he does, he shall be liable to punishment.
Therefore, the council rules that it is impermissible to deem this sort of boxing as a sport or to practice it, for the concept of sport depends on training without causing harm or injury. Moreover, it should be removed from local sports programs or international participation. The council also approves the impermissibility of broadcasting such contests on TV to protect the youth from learning such bad acts or imitating them.
Second: Freestyle Wrestling:
As for freestyle wrestling in which wrestlers deem it lawful to hurt one another and cause injury, the council views that it completely resembles boxing even if there are slight differences between them, because the legal physical reasons for the prohibitions of boxing exist in freestyle wrestling that assumes the nature of fighting. Thus, it takes the same ruling of prohibition. Regarding other types of wrestling practiced for physical exercise without causing any injury, they are legally permissible and the council does not view their prohibition.
Kesimpulan daripada semua fatwa di atas. Sukan tinju, tomoi itu semua adalah TIDAK DIBENARKAN kerana ia terlibat dengan beberapa perkara:
1- Ia melibatkan pukulan kepada muka. Yang mana terdapat dalil khas melarangnya seperti telah disebutkan dalam fatwa-fatwa di atas.
2- Ia juga melibatkan kecederaan bahkan melibatkan kematian. Perkara ini telah diakui oleh ahli perubatan.
3- Apabila ia melibatkan ‘entertainment show’ seperti yang kita lihat dianjurkan oleh Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) ia mengandungi pelbagai aspek negatif. Di samping 2 isu di atas, apabila ia menjadi satu persembahan hiburan, ia sering dihiasi dengan maksiat-maksiat lain seperti provokasi sehingga menghina agama, bangsa dan negara (yang mana ia menjadi punca ‘amukan’ Khabib), begitu juga tajaan syarikat arak, seperti yang dilihat dalam sidang media sebelum perlawanan di mana lawan Khabib memprovokasi dengan menghidangkan arak kepada Khabib, begitu jua dengan wanita-wanita seksi yang ada di situ.
Lalu, apakah pendirian kita kepada Khabib?
1- Kesukaan dan kegembiraan kita kepada Khabib apabila dia menumbangkan si angkuh Conor McGregor bukanlah kerana kita peminat MMA apatah lagi apabila melibatkan persembahan hiburan. Ia bukan jua lambang satu persetujuan kepada penglibatan Khabib dalam sukan itu.
2- Ia merupakan satu reaksi kegembiraan kerana lawan Khabib adalah si mulut lancang yang memprovokasi agama Islam. Ia sama seperti kegembiraan para sahabat apabila Rom berjaya menewaskan Parsi. Ini kerana Rom merupakan penganut agama Kristian yang lebih dekat kepada Islam. Sedangkan Musyrikin Mekah pula sedih apabila Rom menewaskan Parsi. Seandainya lawan Khabib bukan orang yang lancang memprovokasi umat Islam, kita tidak akan bergembira, bahkan kita tak kenal pun siapa Khabib (kecuali peminat-peminat MMA).
3- Selepas melihat perlawanan Khabib melawan Conor McGregor, saya berasa sangat gembira. Akan tetapi saya cuba mencari video-video perlawanan Khabib yang lain. Perasaannya berbeza, tiada rasa gembira atau semangat, sebaliknya fitrah naluri saya menyatakan sukan ini salah dan melanggar ajaran Islam apabila melihat Khabib menumbangkan lawan-lawan yang lain.
4- Khabib seperti kita semua, bukan insan sempurna. Dia ada banyak kebaikan yang dizahirkan. Dia tidak malu menzahirkan Islamnya dengan lafaz Insya-Allah dan Alhamdulillah. Dia mahu menjadi role model yang baik kepada anak-anak muda, dan sebab itu dia tidak bersetuju dengan perkataan-perkataan kotor yang digunakan kerana boleh menjadi ikutan ramai orang. Dia menyatakan bahawa agama no 1 dan sukan bukan no 1. Dia mengajar kita erti hormat kepada orang lain, ketenangan ketika diprovokasi, dan ketegasan dalam mempertahankan agama. Akan tetapi seperti kita jua yang melakukan dosa, dia jua tidak lepas daripadanya. Dia terlibat dalam satu sukan yang telah difatwakan haram. (Ya, jika tinju haram, apatah lagi MMA yang lebih berbahaya).
5- Oleh itu dalam kegembiraan dengan kemenangan Khabib ke atas Conor McGregor, jangan sampai kita menghalalkan perkara yang telah difatwakan haram oleh ramai ulama. Dalam masa yang sama, jangan jua kita memandang rendah kepada Khabib kerana dalam konteks dunia yang dia masuki, dia telah membawa satu imej Islam yang sangat baik.
6- Semoga Allah memberikan hidayah kepada saya, Khabib dan tuan-tuan semua agar kita menjadi Muslim yang komited yang tidak gentar menzahirkan Islam kita.
Saya melihat banyak video berkaitan Khabib, kerana itu saya menyimpulkan beliau seorang Muslim yang baik.
Video Khabib mendengar kanak-kanak membaca surah al-Waqiah
Khabib Hates Conor’s Filthy Mouth, ‘Think About the Kids!’
Lihat apa yang dilakukan lawan Khabib dalam sidang media, dan lihat ketenangan Khabib 🙂
Training With Khabib: Teammates Talk What Makes Nurmagomedov Different – MMA Fighting
Ramadan in MMA Explained: Why doesn’t Khabib fight during the holy month?
The Dagestan Chronicles ft. Khabib Nurmagomedov